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Stern­warte Heidelberg

Table of contents

  • What is there to see in the planetarium?
  • Can I make a reser­va­tion for the Heidel­berg Moun­tain Obser­va­tory on the König­stuhl (LSW)?
  • Direc­tions
  • History of the Heidel­berg König­stuhl Moun­tain Observatory
  • Insti­tu­tion Uni­ver­sity of Heidelberg
  • Are there dis­co­ve­ries that have been made by the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Observatory?
  • Important per­sons
  • What tech­no­logy is used at the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Obser­va­tory on the Königstuhl?
  • Why was the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Obser­va­tory built at the site?
  • Are there any other orga­niz­a­ti­ons as well?
  • Infor­ma­tion about cur­rent space projects
  • Fur­ther information
  • Con­clu­sion
  • Trans­la­ted with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

What is there to see in the planetarium?

If the wea­ther coope­ra­tes, then you can observe the moon in a new way. Evening obser­va­tions start after dark. Before that, unfor­tu­n­a­tely, it is too bright.

Blood moon: If the sun, the moon and the earth are in one line, then there is a blood moon to see. Ther­eby the moon must be in front of the earth. After­wards the sun comes. For example, on 16.05.2022 there was the spe­cial pos­si­bi­lity to see a blood moon. This began at 03:32 o’clock and ended at 06:52 o’clock. While the par­tial eclipse could be seen until 08:52.

Solar eclipse: There are three dif­fe­rent types of solar eclipse. These are the par­tial, total and the annu­lar solar eclipse. The par­tial solar eclipse takes place only if at the new moon, the moon a little bit more, than a quar­ter of the sun is cove­red. The con­stel­la­tion is earth, moon and after­wards the sun. If the moon, the sun com­ple­tely covers, then the sci­en­tists speak of a total solar eclipse. The third type is the annu­lar solar eclipse. It is called this because the moon is clo­sest to the sun at this time and the sun is not com­ple­tely covered.

Is it pos­si­ble to reserve the Heidel­berg Moun­tain Obser­va­tory on the König­stuhl (LSW)?

Cur­r­ently, a reser­va­tion is the only way to visit the Natio­nal Obser­va­tory (LSW). There is the pos­si­bi­lity to book one or more guided tours directly at the obser­va­tory. Like­wise, you can arrange various guided tours at the HDA. The Max Planck Insti­tute, the Rese­arch Obser­va­tory (Heidel­berg) and the House of Astro­nomy run a joint guided tour ser­vice. For the guided tours, they must be a group of at least 12 people (small group) and a maxi­mum of 45 (large group).

Direc­tion

The obser­va­tory on the König­stuhl is loca­ted at König­stuhl 12, 69117 Heidel­berg, Baden-Würt­tem­berg. Various sub­ur­ban trains and line 30 take about 50 minu­tes to get to the obser­va­tory. Visi­tors have to change trains once.

History of the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Observatory

There were various loca­ti­ons to choose from. In the end, the König­stuhl was chosen because of its good loca­tion. The König­stuhl is 560 meters above sea level. The incre­a­sing air pol­lu­tion in Mann­heim played a role. Since 2005 there is the pos­si­bi­lity to down­load the collec­tion, the so called glass plates in the GAVO data­base (German Astro­py­si­cal Vir­tual Obser­va­tory) without addi­tio­nal costs. These also con­tain various collec­tions of pho­to­graphs of dif­fe­rent stars. For rese­arch pur­po­ses a per­mis­sion is needed. The Lan­des­stern­warte Heidel­berg König­stuhl is an insti­tu­tion that is bound tog­e­ther with the Uni­ver­sity of Heidelberg.

Are there dis­co­ve­ries that have been made by the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Observatory?

First Trojan Achilles

Earth orbi­ter Alinda

248 minor planets

823 aste­ro­ids

These images can be viewed in the GAVO data­base. This con­tains several collections.

Important people

Grand Duke Fre­de­rick I of Baden

He lived from 09. Sep­tem­ber. 1926 – Sep­tem­ber 28. 1907. During his life the Grand Duke finan­ced, among other things, the Pla­ne­ta­rium and the KIT was named after him. He died on the island of Mainau.

Maxi­mi­lian Franz Joseph Cor­ne­lius Wolf

He was born on June 21. 1863 in Heidel­berg and died on 03. Octo­ber. 1932 also in Heidel­berg. Wolf built a pri­vate obser­va­tory in his par­ents’ house. During this time also the idea grew to build a moun­tain obser­va­tory for larger obser­va­tions. When the obser­va­tory was finally opened on June 20. 1898 was opened, he became direc­tor with Wil­helm Valen­ti­ner. Wolf was the head of the astro­phy­si­cal depart­ment. When Valen­ti­ner finally reti­red, his depart­ment, the astro­metric, was com­bi­ned. Before that, they com­pe­ted with each other.

Maxi­mi­lian Wolf worked in several areas. Among them was cata­lo­ging astro­no­mi­cal nebu­lae. Using spec­tro­scopy tech­no­logy, the sci­en­tist was able to make visi­ble gas nebu­lae that were not nor­mally visi­ble. In 1909-1910 he dis­co­ve­red Halley’s comet. To this we should add that the astro­no­mer redis­co­ve­red the comet. The real dis­co­ve­rer was Edmond Halley. He redis­co­ve­red the comet in 1705.

Wil­liam Valentiner

Valen­ti­ner was born on Febru­ary 22. 1845 in the city Eckern­fröde and died in the year 1. April. 1931. In 1875 the astro­no­mer got the post of direc­tor for the obser­va­tory in Mann­heim. Then he also became the direc­tor in Karls­ruhe, when the obser­va­tory was moved. When the pla­ne­ta­rium on the König­stuhl in Heidel­berg was built, he became the head of the astro­metric department.

Andreas Quir­ren­bach

He is a pro­fes­sor in the East Insti­tute and his focus is astro­phy­sics. In addi­tion, he has been run­ning since April 1. 2006 the manage­ment of the obser­va­tory. Astro­phy­sics also inclu­des basic rese­arch. He was selec­ted among all other candidates.

There were also pri­vate sup­por­ters, such as Cathe­rine Wolfe Bruce.

What tech­no­logy is used at the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Obser­va­tory on the Königstuhl?

Kann refrac­tor

This is a refrac­ting tele­scope. In astro­nomy it was one of the first telescopes.

Bruce tele­scope

This is an astro­graph. The Bruce Tele­scope was funded by donor Cathe­rine Wolfe Bruce for the natio­nal obser­va­tory. It allo­wed Wolf and his staff to pho­to­graph objects.

Waltz Tele­scope

To make the opti­cal machine work, it focu­ses elec­tro­ma­gne­tic waves to observe distant par­ti­cles. There are also other so-called auxi­li­ary mir­rors. At the end there is the eyepiece.

Cas­se­grain telescope

This tele­scope con­sists only of a skin mirror. The mirror reflects in a secon­dary mirror.

Schmidt tele­scope

This tele­scope is only for photography.

Zeiss tele­scope

This is a refrac­ting tele­scope. In astro­nomy it was one of the first telescopes.

Why was the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Obser­va­tory built on the site?

Ori­gi­nally, the obser­va­tory was in Mann­heim. Due to the incre­a­sing dete­rio­ra­tion of visi­bi­lity, it was moved to Karls­ruhe. Sub­se­quently, three loca­ti­ons were up for dis­cus­sion. In the end, the par­ties agreed on the loca­tion on the König­stuhl. The Grand Duke Fried­rich I of Baden finan­ced the Heidel­berg State Observatory.

Infor­ma­tion about cur­rent space projects

James Webb Telescope

The James Webb machine is the most expen­sive obser­va­tory that has been put into space so far. It was named after the direc­tor of Nasa. The larger goal is to explore the begin­nings of the uni­verse. It is sup­po­sed to be the suc­ces­sor of the Hubble.

Gaia satel­lite

The mis­sion was laun­ched on Decem­ber 19, 2013. The goal of the Gaia mis­sion is to create an accu­rate map of the known universe.

Lunar-Gatway

Since the ISS will reach the end of its life in a few years, various space agen­cies have deci­ded to build a new space sta­tion. This will not be ready until 2030. The plan is that the sta­tion will not be inha­bi­ted for the whole year, but only for 3 months. It will be sta­tio­ned in what is called cis-lunar space. This is the space bet­ween the Earth and the Moon. This means that the flight will be much longer than to the ISS.

Extre­mely Large Tele­scope, Giant Mage­lan Tele­scope, Thirsty Meter Telescope.

The ELT is expec­ted to be com­ple­ted in 2024. The plan is for the GML to be ope­ra­tio­nal in 2022. The TMT, at 30 meters, should be the lar­gest of its kind in the nort­hern hemi­s­phere. Cur­r­ently, it is pro­bably not sche­du­led to begin con­struc­tion for ano­t­her 2 years.

Square Kilo­metre Array

Desti­na­ti­ons: Cradle of Life, High Field Tests of Gene­ral Rela­ti­vity, Origin and Evo­lu­tion of Cosmic Magne­tic Fields, Galaxy For­ma­tion and Cos­mo­logy, Rei­sio­ning Epoch: This is the time before the first objects, like a star, existed.

Part 1: In this sec­tion the expan­sion in the low and middle fre­quency should have reached about 20%.

Part 2: In this sec­tion, the com­plete capa­city of the arrays for the low and medium fre­quency should be reached.

Part 3: In this sec­tion the build-up of the arrays for the so called high fre­quen­cies starts.

LSST: Large Syn­op­tic Survey Telescope.

Objec­ti­ves: Survey gra­vi­ta­tio­nal len­sing to find dark matter/energy, map small objects, observe stel­lar explo­si­ons such as novae.

Euclid 

Euclid: This is to explore the dark universe.

Comet Inter­cep­tor mission

At the moment, the probe is still brea­king down. If, accord­ing to the sche­dule, it is com­ple­ted in 2029, then it will be laun­ched into space with a launch vehi­cle in the same year. In space, the probe will be placed in a wai­t­ing posi­tion. When astro­no­mers dis­co­ver a sui­ta­ble inter­stel­lar object, the probe will head for the object and study it.

Mars Sample Return

The goal is to bring sam­ples from Mars and back to Earth. Up to now, they have only ever been exami­ned directly in the rese­arch labo­ra­to­ries of the robots, such as Cur­sio­sity. The­re­fore, only small amounts of sam­ples could be exami­ned. The goal is to examine the sam­ples in labo­ra­to­ries on Earth.

LISA

This can be used to study gra­vi­ta­tio­nal waves, for example. Gra­vi­ta­tio­nal waves were pre­dic­ted by the famous Pro­fes­sor Ein­stein in 1916. With the help of the Advan­ced LIGO gene­ra­tors, gra­vi­ta­tio­nal waves were detec­ted on Sep­tem­ber 14, 2015. For example, when two black holes col­lide with each other, the curves. With the proof it was proved that the gra­vi­ta­tio­nal waves really exist.

For fur­ther infor­ma­tion you can con­tact the Lan­des­stern­warte Heidel­berg König­stuhl and the HDA. Through the coope­ra­tion with the HDA, there were also indi­vi­dual instru­ments that have been instal­led by the Zeiss Pla­ne­ta­rium. You can look for more infor­ma­tion on the home­page of Zeiss.

For fur­ther infor­ma­tion you can con­tact the dif­fe­rent insti­tu­tes in the respec­tive main building.

Infor­ma­tion about cur­rent space projects

For fur­ther infor­ma­tion you can con­tact the Lan­des­stern­warte Heidel­berg König­stuhl and the HDA. Through the coope­ra­tion with the HDA, there were also indi­vi­dual instru­ments that have been instal­led by the Zeiss Pla­ne­ta­rium. You can look for more infor­ma­tion on the home­page of Zeiss.

For fur­ther infor­ma­tion you can con­tact the dif­fe­rent insti­tu­tes in the respec­tive main building.

Con­clu­sion

If you are inte­res­ted in astro­nomy, then the guided tours at the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Obser­va­tory and the House of Astro­nomy are a great oppor­tu­nity. In addi­tion, it is won­der­ful when there are cur­rent events, such as the last blood moon. The Pla­ne­ta­rium is also slowly ope­ning its doors again, so that visi­tors can once again see the Heidel­berg König­stuhl State Observatory.